(1963). The graves of King Malandela and Cetshwayo are at Nkandla. In 1869 the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Natal, Sir Anthony Musgrave, was called in to solve the argument between the two groups, but he failed to do so. Cetshwayo, also spelled Cetewayo, (born c. 1826, near Eshowe, Zululand [now in South Africa]—died Feb. 8, 1884, Eshowe), last great king of the independent Zulus (reigned 1872–79), whose strong military leadership and political acumen restored the power and prestige of the Zulu nation, which had declined during the reign of his father, Mpande (Panda). After Mpande’s death in 1872, he reconstructed and regenerated the Zulu army and had continual border disputes with the Boers in the west and the English in the South. On the afternoon of 8 February 1884 Cetshwayo died. The official cause of his sudden death was given as a heart attack, though the Zulu believed he had been poisoned. The situation was finally alleviated when the British annexed the South African Republic in April 1877. Fearing that the same fate might befall him, he moved to Engakavini where Cetshwayo grew up. His father declared him his successor very early on in life, which was unusual for a King to do. Jan 23, 2017 - Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. Phone: 035 799 2500 Further Reading on Cetshwayo. Cetshwayo distinguished himself early in life, taking part in the 1838 Zulu attempt to evict the invading Boers from Natal, and in the early 1850s he was involved in fighting between the Zulu and the Swazi for control of the Pongola region. The second item is a letter to Sir Hercules Robinson, governor of the Cape Colony. Mpande was often viewed as a weak man in comparison to his contemporaries as a result and Cetshwayo began gaining influence over the Zulu people. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. Cetshwayo word beskou as die laaste koning van 'n onafhanklike Zoeloenasie. He was met at Port Durnford in January by Shepstone who arranged the details of his restoration, but he was not permitted an army to defend his somewhat reduced 'nation' – part of the arrangement was that the north of Zululand was to be put under the control of Zibhebhu kaMaphitha. King Cetshwayo was an intelligent, disciplined man, a strong military leader with political savvy. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Cetshwayo, also spelled Cetewayo, (born c. 1826, near Eshowe, Zululand [now in South Africa]—died Feb. 8, 1884, Eshowe), last great king of the independent Zulus (reigned 1872–79), whose strong military leadership and political acumen restored the power and prestige of the Zulu nation, which had declined during the reign of his father, Mpande (Panda). He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. Cetshwayo's son Dinizulu, as heir to the throne, was proclaimed king on 20 May 1884. In 1877 the British annexed the Boer republic of Transvaal, an event that fostered a drive to federate the southern African white colonies and to destroy the autonomy of the independent southern African kingdoms. 121 A further twist to the story is that Cetshwayo got wind of the plot and tipped the nephew off, so that in the event he escaped death and secured his inheritance. Ed. In view of the evidence mentioned above (p. 257) that such leaks were usually not accidental, it may be that the impi was intended as nothing more than a gesture to the favourite assuring him of the king's continued esteem. The App will allocate unique reference numbers for all your logged cases… He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In July 1882 Cetshwayo was permitted to travel to the United Kingdom to seek support from British politicians for the restoration of the Zulu monarchy. bKillie Campbell Africana Library, Durban. Although Cetshwayo escaped from oNdini, he was soon captured in the Ngome Forest by British dragoons. He was imprisoned and sent into exile in the Cape. Omissions? The British partitioned the now-defeated Zululand between themselves and Zulu enemies of Cetshwayo, particularly Hamu in the northwest and Zibhebhu (of the Mandlakazi group) in the northeast. The British took over preexisting Boer claims to parts of western Zululand, and in early 1878 Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the Transvaal administrator, and Sir Bartle Frere, the high commissioner of the Cape (see Cape of Good Hope), began a propaganda campaign against Cetshwayo and the Zulu. Several thousand warriors were sent to the border and the Boers eventually retreated. Web. Cetshwayo fled to the British Zulu Native Reserve, where he later died at the British administrative centre of Eshowe in February 1884. King Cetshwayo ligt in de provincie KwaZoeloe-Natal en telt 907.519 inwoners. Mpande became worried that Cetshwayo was gaining too much influence and began to favour Mbuyazi, son of his most beloved wife. The British recovered from their defeat and later reached Ulundi (the capital of Zululand), seizing and burning it in July of that year; this was followed by Cetshwayo’s capture in August and his subsequent exile to Cape Town. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cetshwayo, South African History Online - Biography of Cetshwayo, Cetshwayo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Cetshwayo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 1826-1884) was the last independent Zulu king, whose reign ended in war against the British and in the collapse of Zulu unity. Without the full backing of the British parliament, Frere went ahead with his war plans. Cetshwayo was escorted to Eshowe by Henry Francis Fynn jr, the British Resident in Zululand, on the 15 October 1883. 2.2. Cetshwayo famously led the Zulu during the 1879 Anglo-Zulu War , scoring a major victory over the British at the Battle of Isandlwana before the British stormed his capital of Ulundi and forced him to surrender. King Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. King Cetshwayo District Municipality (formerly Uthungulu District Municipality) is one of the 11 district municipalities ("districts") of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.The seat of the district is Richards Bay.The majority of its 885 944 people speak Zulu (2001 Census).The district code is DC28. His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo. Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.|Potgieter, D.J. Zulu King Cetshwayo Zululand News – General Background. He tried to reclaim the land nearly causing a war as a Zulu army under Cetshwayo and a Boer commando under Paul Kruger positioned themselves along the border between Utrecht and Zululand. During a Zulu civil war in 1856, Cetshwayo’s Usuthu force defeated his rival and brother Mbuyazwe’s Gqoza group in a violent encounter at the Battle of Ndondakasuka (near the lower Tugela River). 1. Die King Cetshwayo-distriksmunisipaliteit (voorheen uThungulu-distriksmunisipaliteit)) is een van die 10 distriksmunisipaliteite van KwaZulu-Natal.Die setel van die munisipaliteit is in Richardsbaai.Die meeste inwoners in die munisipale gebied is Zoeloesprekend.Die munisipaliteit se kode is DC28. That same year, Cetshwayo sought out the Colonial hunter-traders who he had fought against at Ndondakusuka. Like Nero, he killed his own mother, and then caused several persons to be executed because they did not show sufficient … (unknown). Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. King Cetshwayo was born to Mpande, who was King Shaka’s half brother in 1826. Cetshwayo was a nephew of the first two Zulu kings, Shaka and Dingane. 3 Issue 3 of Reprint series: Author: Cetewayo (King of Zululand) Editors Cetshwayo returned to Ulundi in January 1883, and, although he was welcomed by his Usuthu supporters, Zibhebhu and his Mandlakazi supporters prepared for civil war. Canonici and T.T. The civil war between Cetshwayo and Zibhebhu ranged across the Mahlabathini plain and the uSuthu was once again defeated. Man in adaptation: the cultural present (2nd ed). At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. In 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mapande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. During his reign Mpande was faced with both British and Afrikaner settlers on his borders, and he continuously tried not to alienate either party, ceding some of the Zulu Kingdom’s land. District Mayor Nonhle Mkhulisi, Deputy Mayor Linda Phungula and Cllr Madanga Xulu convened the programme where the tribal authorities were introduced to the reticulation project and its impact on the communities of wards 13 and 14. The King Cetshwayo District Municipality (previously uThungulu District Municipality) is a Category C municipality and is located in the north-eastern region of the KwaZulu-Natal Province. As British intentions became clear, Cetshwayo, eager to avoid the slightest hint of provocation, withdrew his army to well behind the border. He famously led the Zulu nation to victory against the British in the Battle of Isandlwana, but was defeated and exiled following that war. Mpande had a third son, Umtonga (older than Cetshwayo). Mpande became King of the Zulus following his defeat of King Dingaan’s army in 1840. Gemeenten in het district  [ bewerken | brontekst bewerken ] He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. Cetshwayo kaMpande (circa 1826 – 8 Februarie 1884) was die koning van die Zoeloenasie van 1872 tot 1879 en die leier van die Zoeloes tydens die Anglo-Zoeloe-oorlog. After his death Cetshwayo came to the throne and an official coronation ceremony took place the following year. Mpande was sent to demand tribute and annex the newly established kingdom into the Zulu Kingdom. The rule of succession is that the heir is born of the women whom the King makes his chief wife. Mpande had announced Cetshwayo as his heir shortly before becoming king, this was at an unusually early stage – Mpande even took the step of introducing Cetshwayo to the Boer Volksraad at Pietermaritzburg in 1839. Although it is clear that by this stage Cetshwayo’s influence was greater than that of Mpande’s, Mpande remained king until his death on 19 November 1872, although he withdrew increasingly from public life. King Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. Altick, Richard Daniel. Born around 1826, Cetshwayo KaMpande was one of several sons of King Mpande, who watched on while his sons fought it out amongst themselves to establish ascendency. The British Secretary for Native Affairs in Natal, Theophilus Shepstone, encouraged Cetshwayo to proclaim his loyalty to his father, and in 1865 Mpande and Cetshwayo were reconciled and in 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mpande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. A Zulu King Speaks: Statements Made by Cetshwayo KaMpande on the History and Customs of His People Volume 3 of Killie Campbell Africana Library, Reprint series Pietermaritzburg. As the situation worsened, Mpande made more of his support for his son Mbuyazi. His visit to London in 1882, during which he stayed at 18 Melbury Road in Holland Park and met Queen Victoria and the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone , was a significant episode in his dramatic story. bUniversity of Natal. Mpande tried to prevent Cetshwayo from threatening his power, and he again appealed to both the British and the Afrikaners for support. King Cetshwayo District Municipality launched the Nkandla Vutshini SSA2 reticulation project at Ward 13, Tulwane, earlier today. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. He was prevented from conducting a post mortem inquiry into the King’s cause of death by the relatives of the King when he told them that the procedure of this inquiry would involve dissecting his body. King Cetshwayo rejected the ultimatum and war broke out between the two nations. Mpande’s forces were defeated by Shoshangane’s force and he was forced to retreat. King Cetshwayo was born in 1826 to Mpande who was King Shaka's half-brother. The first item is a survey of Zulu history, including the events leading to the war of 1879. Updates? In 1856 he defeated and killed in battle his younger brother Mbuyazi, Mpande's favorite, at the Battle of Ndondakusuka. Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi became rivals. Cetshwayo’s grave, in the Nkandla forest, is considered sacred and is guarded by the Zulu. Sir Frere orchestrated a campaign to annex the Zulu kingdom even though British policy at the time was to avoid war with the Zulus. Shaka Zulu was in conflict with Shoshangane, a leader of a breakaway faction that had fled the Zulu kingdom and had established their kingdom near Delagoa Bay. Dino Franco Felluga. However, through incompetence and overconfidence they had a column destroyed at Isandhlwana by the Zulu later that month (see Battles of Isandhlwana and Rorke’s Drift). Stories from that time regarding his huge size vary, saying he stood at least between 6 feet 6 inches tall (198 cm) and 6 feet … King Cetshwayo District Municipality includes three coastal local municipalities: uMfolozi, uMhlathuze and uMlalazi. In the past century King Cetshwayo's 'place in history' has been revised and, indeed, transformed by a succession of ideological and cultural currents flowing through the mainstream of South Africa's historical literature. africanhistory.about.com, last accessed 7 January 2009|Cohen, Y.A. Drought and famine hit the Zulu nation in the summer of 1852–3 and various factions looked towards civil war as an opportunity to gain cattle. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. By March 1883 Zibhebhu was moving against Cetshwayo's supporters in his assigned northern territory and Cetshwayo's uSuthu marched against him. In 1875 Boers flooded across into Zululand, claiming land south of the Phongola River as well as attempting to tax Zulu homesteads in the north-west. King Cetshwayo, the last great ruler of Zululand, is captured by the British following his defeat in the British-Zulu War. In the ensuing battle of Ndondakusuka, Mpande backed Mbuyazi, who was also supported by John Dunn. The Last Zulu King: The Life and Death of Cetshwayo, London: Longman|Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879). The last king of the independent Zulu nation from 1872-1879, Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe, Zululand (now KwaZulu Natal), Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879), Cetshwayo kaMpaande in Zulu Literature by N.N. Umtonga fled from Zululand to the Colony of Natal in 1865 and Cetshwayo felt that part of the agreement he made with the Boers had not been upheld. tReprint series, vno. However, for the next 15 years Cetshwayo seemed to control the Zulu nation, he reenergized the amabutho system and tried to stem the diffusion of power away from the crown and out to the izikhulu (territorial chiefs). In a bloody battle in 1856, Cetshwayo defeated and killed his younger brother Mbuyazi, and then murdered several other siblings to effectively become heir to the throne. Cetshwayo's body was returned to the Nkandla Forest for burial, and the war between his uSuthu and Zibhebhu continued. Cetshwayo was declared heir because he was born of a wife given to Mpande by Dingane. When his father, Mpande, displaced Dingane in 1840, Cetshwayo was brought into the line of immediate royal succession. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It should be supplemented by Donald R. Morris, The Washing of the Spears (1965). He was subsequently sent into exile. The doctor who examined him to determine the cause of death suspected that he was poisoned as he seemed in good health that very morning; he was seen taking his usual early morning walk. Their campaign centred on the reluctance of the Zulu to work in the British colonies near Zululand and on an alleged Zulu military threat to the colony of Natal. The arrival in March 1877 of Sir Bartle Frere, British High Commissioner for South Africa and Commander-in-Chief of all British forces, brought a new threat to Zulu independence. From Malandela to Shaka, to Dingane and Cetshwayo, Nkandla has been at the centre stage of the Zulu nation’s history. King Cetshwayo is een district in Zuid-Afrika. When his father, Mpande, displaced Dingane in 1840, Cetshwayo was brought into the line of immediate royal succession. On this video I speak about the history of my Great grandfather's Father King Cetshwayo, son of King Mpande and King Mpande was the younger brother of King Shaka. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. Whilst Cetshwayo and his 15-year old heir, Dinizulu, were able to escape the capital of oNdini and hide out in the Nkandla forest, the uSuthu leadership was decimated. King Cetshwayo ligt in de provincie KwaZoeloe-Natal en telt 907.519 inwoners  . Later he was allowed to travel to London and met Queen Victoria, who permitted him to return to South Africa to rule a portion of the former Zulu kingdom in 1883. The letter gives Cetshwayo's version of the war and his objections to being exiled. But Cetshwayo dramatically defeated his brother on the banks of the Tugela River in 1856. Standard Encyclopedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 7, p. 626. But his prospects remained uncertain, for although the eldest son of Mpande's first wife, he was closely matched in age by a half brother, Mbulazi, the eldest son of Mpande's more favored second wife. The extra territory extended from Rorke’s Drift on the Buffalo River to a point on the Pongola River. the ‘cradle’ of Zulu history. By the mid-1850s Cetshwayo was head of a young Zulu group known as the Usuthu. To connect to King Cetshwayo District Municipality, a Water Services Authority. His sovereignty was also recognized by the neighbouring British administration, which controlled the colony of Natal to the immediate south of the Zulu kingdom. As long as King Cetshwayo remained at large there was still a chance of resistance from the Zulu nation but the British finally got their man 140 years ago today Troy Lennon History … Although Cetshwayo was initially supported by the likes of Shepstone and the British the Zulu King soon became a threat to the British confederation of South Africa as the Zulu nation grew in military power under his rule. Sy naam is ook getranslitereer as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo en Ketchwayo en is Zoeloe vir "die belasterde een". Cetshwayo was a nephew of the first two Zulu kings, Shaka and Dingane. Tallie, T. J.. “On Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande’s Visit to London, August 1882.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. King Cetshwayo was born in 1826 to Mpande who was King Shaka's half-brother. The uSuthu were defeated and driven into Transvaal and back south to oNdini. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Boers were prepared to meet his request if he spared Umtonga’s life and Mpande signed a deed giving the Boers the additional land. Siedzibą administracyjną dystryktu jest Richards Bay. His father declared him his successor very early on in life, which was unusual for a King to do. et al. The uMhlathuze Municipality includes the port of Richards Bay, which handles the greatest volume of cargo of any port in Africa and the largest percentage of cargo of any South African port. Almost all Mbuyazi's followers were massacred in the aftermath of the battle, including five of Cetshwayo's own brothers. Cetshwayo also began to see him as a threat and chased him into Utrecht (land that Mpande had ceded in 1854) in 1861. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Cetshwayo, king of the Zulu, under British guard in Southern Africa, 1879. The Zulus won the Battle of Isandlwana, but they lost the crucial Battle of Ulundi (oNdini). Cetshwayo’s army camped on the border of the Boer Republic and promised the Boers a strip of land on the border if they handed his brother over. Binns, C.T. Cele (Alternation), 1998. (eds) (1970). Conflict became inevitable when Mbuyazi and his supporters, the iziGqoza, moved to their lands just north of the Thukela River, clearing the area of Cetshwayo's supporters. Cetshwayo (ca. King Cetshwayo District Municipality (formerly Uthungulu District Municipality ) is one of the 11 district municipalities ("districts") of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.The seat of the district is Richards Bay.The majority of its 885 944 people speak Zulu (2001 Census).The district code is DC28. After his victory, Cetshwayo was widely regarded as the de facto heir to Mpande, and from about 1861, as his father aged, Cetshwayo effectively ruled Zululand. Cetshwayo was a son of Zulu king Mpande and Queen Ngqumbazi, half-nephew of Zulu king Shaka and grandson of Senzangakhona kaJama. As absolute ruler of a rigidly disciplined army of 40,000 men, Cetshwayo was considered a threat to British colonial interests; the Anglo-Zulu War (1879) and subsequent destruction of Zulu power removed that threat.
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